Wednesday, October 28, 2009

In what form the water exists in our body?

As an update to the series of articles on water, today I am about to publish an article about water and its existence in our body in different forms. Though this article is quite lengthy, it’s quite worth reading. Many secrets of human body were being revealed here in this article. Please be patient and go through it.

As discussed in my earlier updates, water occupies 68% of the body. Water exists in different forms of fluids in and around the cells of our body. The water within the cells is called intra-cellular fluid and the water that exists at various parts of the body in different forms of fluids is called extra-cellular fluid. The extra-cellular fluids are mainly of eight types. They are:

1. Plasma:

Blood plasma is the yellow liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells in whole blood would normally be suspended. It makes up about 55% of the total blood volume. It is mostly water (90% by volume) and contains dissolved proteins, glucose, clotting factors, minerals, irons, hormones and carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation). Blood plasma is prepared by spinning a tube of fresh blood in a centrifuge until the blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. The blood plasma is then poured or drawn off. Blood plasma has a density of approximately 1025 kg/m3, or 1.025 kg/l.

Blood serum is blood plasma without fibrinogen or the other clotting factors (i.e., whole blood minus both the cells and the clotting factors).

Plasmapheresis is a medical therapy that involves blood plasma extraction, treatment, and reintegration.

Fibrinogen is an important protein involved in blood clotting. Albumins and globulins are proteins that aid in the regulation of fluid in and out of the blood vessels. Proteins called gamma globulins act as antibodies and help protect the body against foreign substances, called antigens.

The salts present in plasma include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate. They are involved in many important body functions such as muscle contraction, the transmission of nerve impulses, and regulation of the body's acid-base balance. The remaining substances in plasma include nutrients, hormones, dissolved gases and waste products that are being transported to and from body cells. These materials enter and leave the plasma as blood circulates through the body.

2. Interstitial Fluid or Tissue Fluid:

Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid) is a solution that bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. It is the main component of the extracellular fluid, which also includes plasma and transcellular fluid. The interstitial fluid is found in the interstitial spaces, also known as the tissue spaces.

On average, a person has about 11 litres (2.4 imperial gallons) of interstitial fluid, providing the cells of the body with nutrients and a means of waste removal.

Plasma and interstitial fluid are very similar. Plasma, the major component in blood, communicates freely with interstitial fluid through pores and intercellular clefts in capillary endothelium.

Interstitial fluid consists of a water solvent containing amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, coenzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, salts, as well as waste products from the cells.

The composition of tissue fluid depends upon the exchanges between the cells in the biological tissue and the blood. This means that tissue fluid has a different composition in different tissues and in different areas of the body.

Not all of the contents of the blood pass into the tissue, which means that tissue fluid and blood are not the same. Red blood cells, platelets, and plasma proteins cannot pass through the walls of the capillaries. The resulting mixture that does pass through is, in essence, blood plasma without the plasma proteins. Tissue fluid also contains some types of white blood cell, which help combat infection.

Lymph is considered a part of the interstitial fluid. The lymphatic system returns protein and excess interstitial fluid to the circulation.

3. Cerebrospinal fluid:

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain. In essence, the brain "floats" in it.

The CSF occupies the space between the arachnoid mater (the middle layer of the brain cover, meninges), and the pia mater (the layer of the meninges closest to the brain). It constitutes the content of all intra-cerebral (inside the brain, cerebrum) ventricles, cisterns, and sulci (singular sulcus), as well as the central canal of the spinal cord.

It acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull.

CSF has many putative roles, including mechanical protection of the brain, distribution of neuron endocrine factors, and prevention of brain ischemia. The actual mass of the human brain is about 1400 grams; however the net weight of the brain suspended in the CSF is equivalent to a mass of 25 grams. The prevention of brain ischemia is made by decreasing the amount of CSF in the limited space inside the skull. This decreases total intracranial pressure and facilitates blood perfusion. It also cushions the spinal cord against jarring shock.

4. Serous Fluid:

In physiology, the term serous fluid is used for various bodily fluids that are typically pale yellow and transparent, and of a benign nature, that fill the inside of body cavities.

Saliva consists of mucus and serous fluid; the serous fluid contains the enzyme amylase important for the digestion of carbohydrates. Minor salivary glands of von Ebner present on the tongue secrete the amylase. The parotid gland produces purely serous saliva. The other major salivary glands produce mixed (serous and mucus) saliva.

Another type of serous fluid is secreted by the serous membranes (or serosa), two layered membranes which line the body cavities. The serous fluid between the two layers acts as a lubricant and reduces friction from muscle movement. Cytopathologic evaluation is recommended to evaluate the causes of fluid accumulation which include involvement of the cavity by cancer.

A common trait of serous fluids is their role in assisting digestion, excretion, and respiration.

5. Peritoneal Fluid:

Peritoneal fluid is a liquid that is made in the abdominal cavity to lubricate the surface of the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and pelvic cavity and covers most of the organs in the abdomen.

6. Synovial Fluid:

Synovial fluid is a thick, stringy fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. With its yolk-like consistency ("synovial" partially derives from ovum, Latin for egg), synovial fluid reduces friction between the articular cartilage and other tissues in joints to lubricate and cushion them during movement.

The inner membrane of synovial joints is called the synovial membrane and secretes synovial fluid into the joint cavity. This fluid forms a thin layer (roughly 50 μm) at the surface of cartilage and also seeps into microcavities and irregularities in the articular cartilage surface, filling all empty space. The fluid in articular cartilage effectively serves as a synovial fluid reserve. During movement, the synovial fluid held in the cartilage is squeezed out mechanically to maintain a layer of fluid on the cartilage surface (so-called weeping lubrication).

Synovial tissue is composed of vascularized connective tissue that lacks a basement membrane. Two cells type (type A and type B) are present: Type B produce synovial fluid. Synovial fluid is made of hyaluronic acid and lubricin, proteinases, and collagenases. Synovial fluid exhibits non-Newtonian flow characteristics. The viscosity coefficient is not a constant, the fluid is not linearly viscous, and its viscosity increases as the shear rate decreases.

Normal synovial fluid contains 3-4 mg/ml hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid), a polymer of disaccharides composed of D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetyl glucosamine joined by alternating beta-1,4 and beta-1,3 glycosidic bonds. Hyaluronan is synthesized by the synovial membrane and secreted into the joint cavity to increase the viscosity and elasticity of articular cartilages and lubricate the surfaces between synovium and cartilage.

Synovial fluid contains lubricin secreted by synovial cells. It is chiefly responsible for so-called boundary-layer lubrication, which reduces friction between opposing surfaces of cartilage. There is also some evidence that it helps regulate synovial cell growth.

Its functions are reducing friction by lubricating the joint, absorbing shocks, and supplying oxygen and nutrients to and removing carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the chondrocytes within articular cartilage.

It also contains phagocytic cells that remove microbes and the debris that results from normal wear and tear in the joint.

7. Gastric Digestive Juices:

Gastric juice is a strong acidic liquid, pH 1 to 3 in humans, which is close to being colourless. The hormone gastrin is released into the bloodstream when peptides are detected in the stomach. This causes gastric glands in the lining of the stomach to secrete gastric juice. Its main components are digestive enzymes pepsin and rennin (rennin found in cows and babies), hydrochloric acid, and mucus.

8. Urine:

Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the kidneys by a process of filtration from blood called urination and excreted through the urethra. Cellular metabolism generates numerous waste compounds, many rich in nitrogen that require elimination from the bloodstream. This waste is eventually expelled from the body in a process known as micturition, the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. These chemicals can be detected and analyzed by urinalysis. Amniotic fluid is closely related to urine, and can be analyzed by amniocentesis.

Urine is a transparent solution that can range from colorless to amber but is usually a pale yellow. Urine is an aqueous solution of approximately 95% water, with the remaining percentages being metabolic wastes such as urea, dissolved salts, and organic compounds. Fluid and materials being filtered by the kidneys, destined to become urine, come from the blood or interstitial fluid.

Except in cases of kidney or urinary tract infection (UTI), urine is virtually sterile and nearly odorless. Subsequent to elimination from the body, urine can acquire strong odors due to bacterial action. Most noticeably, the asphyxiating ammonia is produced by breakdown of urea. Some diseases alter the quantity and consistency of the urine, such as sugar as a consequence of diabetes.

By now you might have clearly understood how important the water is for our body. Many of us ignore the importance of water. If the body has to get full benefits of eating highly expensive and large volumes of food, one has to drink adequate amount of water. The present generation people are giving less importance to water and more importance to food; which is the reason for increasing rate of diseases. According to Famous Naturalist Dr. Mantena Satyanarayana Raju if the food intake is reduced by 50% of what we eat, we can work more vigorously and put in more hours of work. However, it is possible only when we maintain the adequate ratio of water in our body. Dr. Raju not only experimented on himself but also on hundreds of other people. He observed more energy and ability in all the men even when they put in extra hours of labour. They were never tired nor felt uneasy. Unless we experience it for ourselves we never understand the pleasure and benefits of consuming more water.

Keep watching the space for more updates on the essence of water.


  1. April 18 2010 Thank you for the beautifully illustrated and detailed article, I have been a nurse for 27 years and I have forgotten some the basic concepts of distribution of body fluids and electrolytes your article was a get review THANK AGAIN.

  2. Thanks for the comment. Over the months I have noticed only professionals like u have shown interest on this update. Others simply visit and exit this page. Anyway I am obliged that it is useful to people like you. Thanks again for the comment.

  3. thank you for this detailed illustration

  4. Thanks for posting on Facebook. It needs a serious reading and understanding. Really appreciate the detailed description and visuals for non-medical person to understand.


Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...